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consisting of a bit of lint and charpie, and a folded scrap of muslin; the whole enveloped in waxed paper.
The several chests were packed under the supervision of Lieut. Col. C. Sutherland, assistant medical purveyor, U. S. A. When loaded, the surgical chest weighed 203 pounds; the medical chest, 226 pounds; the mess chest, 173 pounds.
FIG. 12.-COMPACT FIELD CASE. Compartment A contains: 1 tourniqu t, 1 large Liston's bone cutter, 1 gnawing forceps, 1 sequestrum forceps, 1 Lion forceps, 1 conical trephine, 1 trephine-brush, 2 German-silver retractors, 1 osteotome, handle with four points, 1 tire fond, 1 Ollier's curved osteotome and chain saw conductor, 1 scissors, 1 dissecting forceps, 1 artery forceps 1 silver grooved director. Compartment B contains: 1 major saw with 2 extra narrower blades, 1 movable back saw, 1 English No. 6 gum elastic catheter, 1 elevator, 1 bullet forceps (mo tel Gemrig), 1 bullet forceps (model Tiemann). 1 long articulated probe or sonde de poitrine, with 2 Nelaton or porcelain tips, and 1 burr-beaded ballsearcher. In lower end tray, 1 chain saw (model Charriere) with conducting needle; in upper end tray, 10 large serres fines, 2 coils of annealed iron wire. In tray D. under movable-back saw, silk, linen, and catgut ligatures, wax, silver suture wire, surgeon's curved needles, acupressure pins, 2 silver probes.
Three folded double colored blankets, of the hospital pattern, are to be strapped on the forward chest, and a rubber blanket to be spread and secured over the entire load. It is intended that the driver may sit on the front box, and experiment shows that in this position he has good control of the reins, and as firm a seat as the driver of a caisson. Iron loops or holdfasts have been attached to the forward braces of either panel for greater security.
The cart itself, without a load, weighs 420 pounds. Adding the weight of the three packed chests, or 602 pounds, allowing 50 pounds for the blankets and 148 pounds for the driver, the total weight to be drawn is 1,220 pounds. As it is estimated by the best authorities (Mc
Adam and others) that a stout cart-horse fifteen and a half hands high should be equal to the traction of 3,200 pounds over ordinary roads at 3 miles an hour, the weight of the entire load is within limits even for long and rapid marches.
Several officers have advised that a detached seat supported by iron stays should be constructed for the driver; but to this it has been objected that such a seat would add to the complexity and expense of the vehicle, and make it more liable to be used for other purposes than that for which it is designed, and, principally, that such an arrangement would necessitate lowering the forward box and thus destroying the quiformity in the dimensions of the chests, which is an important feature in the plan.
This pattern of medical transport cart has not yet been tested in actual service; but the preliminary practical trials that have been made with it indicate that it will prove a convenient and important addition to the Army field equipment.
No. 5. Ambulance (full size) of the Wheeling pattern, made under
Nos. 6, 7, and 8. Three experimental ambulances, made at Watervliet Arsenal, under the direction of Col. P. V. Hagner, U. S. A., in accordance with designs furnished by a Board of Army Officers, of which Col. Rufus Ingalls, quartermaster, U. S. A., was president, and Assistant Surgeon G. A. Otis, U. S. A., recorder.
REPORT ON THE MATERIAL AT THE EXHIBITION
ARMY MEDICAL SCIENCE AND ADMINISTRATION,
ASST. SURGEON J. J. WOODWARD, MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U. S. A., IN CHARGE OF MEDICAL SECTION, WAR DEPARTMENT PARTICIPATION.
Bvt. Lt. Col. S. C. LYFORD,
Representative of the War Department, and Chairman of the
Board on behalf of the United States Executive Departments : SIR: In accordance with the instructions of your letter of May 26, 1876, I have examined such portions of the general exhibition as relates to the proper work of the medical staff of armies, and now offer the following brief report in relation thereto.
But, in the first place, I must say that I cannot sufficiently regret that foreign nations were not particularly invited to send exhibits representing the methods employed by the medical staff's of their several armies for preserving the health of troops, and for the treatment and cure of the sick and wounded.
Surgeon-General Barnes suggested, in the spring of 1874, that such invitations should be sent. In his letter of May 5 of that year, to the
honorable Secretary of War, he uses the following language:
It is, in my opinion, very desirable that the army medical departments of other Governments should be represented at the International Exhibition in connection with our own Medical Department. This could not but lead to a beneficial interchange of ideas, and to a comparison of the various devices employed in the care of the sick and wounded, which could not fail to advance the best interests of medical science. I recommend, therefore, that appropriate invitations may be extended to these medical departments through the proper official channels.
If it had been deemed expedient and practicable to carry out this plan, it may well be believed that the advantages anticipated by the Surgeon General would have been fully realized. Not merely would benefit have accrued from the facilities afforded for the study and comparison of the various devices employed by different armies, but such exhibits as it was hoped would be obtained would undoubtedly have been accompanied by medical officers of the armies of the several nations, who would thus have been afforded an opportunity for comparing opinions on all that relates to the health of troops, which could not but have proved mutually instructive. As it was, although several Governments and a number of private individuals made interesting exhibits in
Philadelphia of matters pertaining to the Medical Service of Armies, none of the foreign Governments attempted a systematic display of its own characteristic methods and appliances in this branch of army ad
The articles exhibited consisted for the most part (a) of devices for use in connection with the transportation of the sick and wounded, or of medical and surgical supplies for their use, and (b) of surgical instruments and appliances. As both these groups of objects illustrate subjects which have been particularly studied by my colleague, Bvt. Lieut. Col. G. A. Otis, assistant surgeon U. S. A., I have requested him to examine them, and express an opinion as to the character and merits of those which appeared to him to be of special interest or importance. He has been so obliging as to comply with my request, and has prepared a statement, which I forward herewith as a supplement to my report.
The following is a brief sketch of the extent and character of the exhibits of this kind. Four Governments, Sweden, Russia, Spain, and Japan, notwithstanding the absence of special invitations, voluntarily manifested their interest in the welfare of wounded soldiers by exhibiting contrivances for their treatment and for their removal from the field of battle.
Everything else relating to the subject under consideration to be seen in the exhibits of other foreign countries was furnished by the enterprise or philanthropy of private individuals or societies. The most extensive, and in many respects the most interesting, collection of the kind in the whole exhibition, that in the display of the German Empire, was not sent by the Government, but from private sources, although the interest taken in the subject by this enlightened Government was indicated by the fact that the Empress herself directed the sending of one or two articles, which will be referred to hereafter. In fact, I must express the opinion that the limited extent to which the Governments sent exhibits of this character was in nowise due to their apathy or indifference with regard to the health of armies, or the relief of the suffering which follows battles, but was simply owing to the fact that no special effort was made to invite their attention to the subject.
The Swedish Government (sanitary department of the Royal War Office) exhibited, in the main building, two cases of surgical instruments, such as are used by the medical officers of their army, and made by Alb. Stélle, of Stockholm; also, a compact two-horse' medicine wagon, intended to carry supplies with troops in the field.
The Russian Government exhibited, in the main building, several cases of surgical instruments for use by surgeons, assistant surgeons, and veterinary surgeons, and in machinery hall a very interesting (full size) model ambulance, which, since the close of the exhibition, has generously been presented to the Army Medical Museum.
The Spanish Government had a separate building, in which an in
teresting collection of models and other objects relating to the military service was displayed. Among these there were two stretchers for carrying the wounded, several small models of mule-litters, cacolets, panniers. &c., a full-sized pack-saddle, with a pair of panniers containing medicines and surgical appliances for field service, and a collection. of bandages, splints, and dressings for the treatment of wounds.
The Japanese Government (Imperial War Department) exhibited a small collection of litters and stretchers. Among them there was a wheeled litter for carrying a single wounded man, one for carrying two wounded men, and several hand-litters with bamboo poles.
As already stated, the comparatively extensive, and certainly the most interesting, collection in the German department was not a Government display. The directors of the Lower Silesian and Markish Railway exhibited a small model of a railway car, such as is used on the German roads, fitted up with stretchers to carry ten sick or wounded soldiers in the reclining position; full-sized models of the stretchers, to show their construction and the method of suspending them; and a model of a German railway car fitted up as a kitchen, with cooking-range and utensils intended to do the cooking for a train of sick and wounded. Also a portfolio of drawings representing a complete sanitary train. N. Plambeck, of Hamburg, also exhibited a small model of a railway car fitted up with stretchers for the transportation of eight wounded men, and full-sized models of stretchers and contrivances for suspending them.
Quite a collection of stretchers and litters, two of them mounted on wheels, were exhibited by Edward Lipowsky, of Heidelberg, who also exhibited models of a plan for suspending litters in railway cars and other vehicles, and a variety of operating tables and chairs, bathing apparatus, sick-beds, and other appliances for the sick room.
Prof. Friedrich Esmarch, of Kiel, exhibited the apparatus employed in his "bloodless operations"; his apparatus with elastic extension for the transport of fractured thigh; his triangular bandage for the extemporaneous dressing of wounds (" Der erste Verband"); his apparatus for carrying and administering chloroform in the field, and a small dressing case for field service.
Dr. Julius Port, of Munich, exhibited a collection of splints extemporized from telegraph wires, designed for the treatment of gunshot fractures of both upper and lower extremities. This collection has been presented to the Army Medical Museum at the request of the exhibitor.
The surgical clinic of the University of Koenigsberg (Professor Schoenborn, director) exhibited a collection of the "gypsum and hemp com. bination splints" invented by Dr. F. L. Beely, with photographs showing their adaptation to fractures of both upper and lower extremities. G. Horn, of Kiel, exhibited an assortment of handsomely carved wooden splints for both apper and lower extremities.
Dr. Bernard Beck, of Carlsruhe, exhibited a collection of splints ex