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are suspended from upright stanchions, each by four springs of the kin M. Lefort proposed as a substitute for the rubber rings introduced b Dr. Harris, which rendered such good service in America and in Ge

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many. The sanitary train illustrated by these models was constructed at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. Sets of drawings of a complete hospita railway train accompanied the models. The directors also exhibited a model of a litter with arm iests.

Mr. N. Plambeck, of Hamburg, exhibited a model of a freight ca converted to hospital purposes. This system, which has been described by Staff Surgeon Löwer (Deutsche Militairärztliche Zeitschrift, 1872, B I, S. 143), rendered most efficient service during the Franco-German war. A train would leave Hamburg consisting of a passenger car for the surgeons and attendants, and three or four box freight cars filled with litters, bedding, stoves, fuel, cooking and eating utensils, provis ions, chests of bandages and appliances, and medicines, supplies ade

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quate for a hundred and sixty patients. At the seat of war empty freight cars that had carried forward ammunition and supplies would be found and hastily fitted up to serve as hospitals. Eight litters were usually placed in a car. (Fig. 12.) Six, in two tiers, occupied one side of the car, and two were placed on the other. The wide side door af forded easy ingress to patients borne on litters. The upper tiers of lit

ters were suspended by the claw (Fig. 13) devised by Mr. Hennicke. The lower litters hung by springs from wooden frames. The arrangement is by no means the best that can be devised, but it is of ready application, and under good supervision proved a most valuable means of improvising comfortable accommodation for the sick and gravely onded. Numerous publications, for the most part well known, on sanitary appliances and on the Geneva Convention, were sent with the

FIG. 13.-Hennicke's claw and spring for suspending litters.

e's self" Schaafhausen manual.

German exhibits. There was also exhibited by Her Majesty the Emress of Germany a sample of the case carried by each German officer d soldier on campaign, containing an assortment of Esmarch's pri nary dressings, scissors, finger cots, &c., with a copy the little "Help In the Austrian section, pure sulphuric ether was sent by Pollok, of Tena: trusses by Hamerli, of Funfkirchen, Hungary; plaster of Paris facture dressings, by A. Zaigmondy, of Vienna; artificial teeth by Berghammer, of Vienna, and Port, of Kiansenberg, Hungary; and Dr. Alam Politzer, of Vienna, sent an exquisite series of anatomical demonstrations of the ear, which I was glad to learn was acquired by the eam of the College of Physicians, of Philadelphia, and retained in The display of surgical instruments and appliances in the Italian exbe a was meager. Morreale, or Palermag, exhibited an acqua enox among the pharmaceutical preparations; Menici, of Livorno, an alid bed, "macchina per sollevare i malati”; Papini, of Florence, a

this country.

8: Bernabei, of Rome,

a of Milan, a collection of surgical instruments, comprising those ed in general surgery, and those for ophthalmic operations, a series that had been honored by medals at Naples and Milan, and by a medal f merit at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. Gramignani, of Ancona, Testi, of Bologna, and Sirletti, of Rome, sent dental implements and artificial teeth. Nothing was found in this section suggestive of im

an enema syringe; and the Cavaliero Gen

provement upon well-known patterns.

are suspended from upright stanchions, each by four springs of the kind M. Lefort proposed as a substitute for the rubber rings introduced by Dr. Harris, which rendered such good service in America and in Ger

[graphic][merged small]

many. The sanitary train illustrated by these models was constructed at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. Sets of drawings of a complete hospital railway train accompanied the models. The directors also exhibited a model of a litter with arm iests.

Mr. N. Plambeck, of Hamburg, exhibited a model of a freight car converted to hospital purposes. This system, which has been described by Staff Surgeon Löwer (Deutsche Militairärztliche Zeitschrift, 1872, B. I, S. 143), rendered most efficient service during the Franco-German war. A train would leave Hamburg consisting of a passenger car for the surgeons and attendants, and three or four box freight cars filled with litters, bedding, stoves, fuel, cooking and eating utensils, provisions, chests of bandages and appliances, and medicines, supplies ade

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quate for a hundred and sixty patients. At the seat of war empty freight cars that had carried forward ammunition and supplies would be found and hastily fitted up to serve as hospitals. Eight litters were usually placed in a car. (Fig. 12.) Six, in two tiers, occupied one side of the car, and two were placed on the other. The wide side door af forded easy ingress to patients borne on litters. The upper tiers of lit

ters were suspended by the claw (Fig. 13) devised by Mr. Hennicke. The lower litters hung by springs from wooden frames. The arrangement is by no means the best that can be devised, but it is of ready application, and under good supervision proved a most valuable means of improvising comfortable accommodation for the sick and gravely wounded. Numerous publications, for the most part well known, on sanitary appliances and on the Geneva Convention, were sent with the

FIG. 13.-Hennicke's claw and spring for suspending litters.

German exhibits. There was also exhibited by Her Majesty the Empress of Germany a sample of the case carried by each German officer and soldier on campaign, containing an assortment of Esmarch's primary dressings, scissors, finger cots, &c., with a copy the little "Help one's self" Schaafhausen manual.

In the Austrian section, pure sulphuric ether was sent by Pollok, of Vienna; trusses by Hamerli, of Funfkirchen, Hungary; plaster of Paris fracture dressings, by A. Zaigmondy, of Vienna; artificial teeth by Berghammer, of Vienna, and Port, of Kiansenberg, Hungary; and Dr. Adam Politzer, of Vienna, sent an exquisite series of anatomical demonstrations of the ear, which I was glad to learn was acquired by the Museum of the College of Physicians, of Philadelphia, and retained in this country.

The display of surgical instruments and appliances in the Italian exhibition was meager. Morreale, of Palermo, exhibited an acqua emostatica among the pharmaceutical preparations; Menici, of Livorno, an invalid bed, "macchina per sollevare i malati"; Papini, of Florence, a truss; Bernabei, of Rome, an enema syringe; and the Cavaliero Gennari, of Milan, a collection of surgical instruments, comprising those used in general surgery, and those for ophthalmic operations, a series that had been honored by medals at Naples and Milan, and by a medal of merit at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. Gramignani, of Ancona, Testi, of Bologna, and Sirletti, of Rome, sent dental implements and artificial teeth. Nothing was found in this section suggestive of improvement upon well-known patterns.

are suspended from upright stanchions, each by four springs of the kind M. Lefort proposed as a substitute for the rubber rings introduced by Dr. Harris, which rendered such good service in America and in Ger

[graphic][merged small]

many. The sanitary train illustrated by these models was constructed at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. Sets of drawings of a complete hospital railway train accompanied the models. The directors also exhibited a model of a litter with arm ests.

Mr. N. Plambeck, of Hamburg, exhibited a model of a freight car converted to hospital purposes. This system, which has been described by Staff Surgeon Löwer (Deutsche Militairärztliche Zeitschrift, 1872, B. I, S. 143), rendered most efficient service during the Franco-German war. A train would leave Hamburg consisting of a passenger car for the surgeons and attendants, and three or four box freight cars filled with litters, bedding, stoves, fuel, cooking and eating utensils, provisions, chests of bandages and appliances, and medicines, supplies ade

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quate for a hundred and sixty patients. At the seat of war empty freight cars that had carried forward ammunition and supplies would be found and hastily fitted up to serve as hospitals. Eight litters were usually placed in a car. (Fig. 12.) Six, in two tiers, occupied one side of the car, and two were placed on the other. The wide side door af forded easy ingress to patients borne on litters. The upper tiers of lit

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